SELF-ASSESSMENT REPORT

OF THE CHAIR OF ARCHAEOLOGY
AND THE KABINET OF ARCHAEOLOGY
OF TARTU UNIVERSITY (1998-2002)

2. Projects of target-financing

In the Humanities the governmental basic- or target-financing of research started only in 1998 the way it is proceeding in Estonia at present. In Tartu University an interdisciplinary project "Processes of Popular Culture in Estonia in the Historical and Contemporary Perspectives" associating archaeologists, ethnologists and folklorists was launched at Tartu University the same year.

2.1. Processes of Popular Culture in Estonia in the Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (1998-2002). TFLAJ 0531

The project leader was Professor of ethnology Elle Vunder, principal investigators in the field of archaeology through all the years - the senior researcher H. Valk, researcher A. Tvauri, technician Marge Konsa, conservator A. Vindi and draughtsperson R. Vesi. The theme mentioned covered also research on ethnology and folklore. Substantially, the theme was not an entity but created as an "umbrella" for financing the research work of three small specialities in Tartu University (no one of the specialities mentioned could have met the requirements set to achieve the approval of a theme alone).

The resources of the theme helped to pay the salaries of the employees of the AK; the resources to cover economic expenses of the research work were practically lacking (during the last three years the archaeologists received about 20,000 EEK a year, half of the sum was spent on paying phone bills). The resources of the theme covered the office costs, some expenses in the work of the conservation lab as well as part of the work on the joint database of Estonian antiquities and archaeological sites (see 5.1.).

The substantial research in the frames of the theme focused on the investigation of Estonian early Iron Age and medieval period with a number of sub-themes and supported by the ESF grants. The main results are reflected in the PhD dissertations of H. Valk and A. Tvauri, treating, respectively, Southern-Estonian rural cemeteries in the 13th-18th cc. and Prehistoric Tartu, also in other publications.

2.1.1. An analysis of archaeological material of Estonian rural cemeteries in the Medieval and early Modern times gave an overview of cultural processes that had taken place in the country. The finds and burial customs testify to equability and mental stagnation of the cultural scene. In the cultural sense the period from the Christianisation of Estonia until the 18th-19th cc., in particular up to great changes in the middle of the 19th century, can be treated as a uniform time period. Popular beliefs are characterised by syncretistic world outlook. In a broader European context, rural cemeteries prove the exceptionality of the cultural situation in medieval Livonia: from the cultural point of view Estonian towns belong to medieval Europe, the rural space in its principal features does not. Obviously, the reason lies in the strong ethno-social polarisation of the whole society into Estonians as a lower stratum and Germans as a higher stratum.

More innovative research trends involve reflections of religious syncretism in archaeological matter as well as the reflection of antiquities in oral tradition.

More important theme-related publications:
Monographs:
1. Valk, H. 1999. Rural Cemeteries of Southern Estonia 1225-1800 AD. (CCC Papers 3.) Visby; Tartu 1999; 2nd edition 2001.

Peer-reviewed research publications:
2. Valk H. 1998. About the transitional Period in the burial Customs in the Region of the Baltic Sea. - Acta Visbyensia XI. Culture Clash or Compromise? The Europeanisation of the Baltic Sea Area 1100 - 1400 AD. Papers of the XIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland Centre for Baltic Studies, Gotland University College, Visby, October 4th- 9th, 1996. Visby, 237-250.
3. Valk, H. 1999a. The Distribution of Medieval / Post-Medieval Burial Grounds of Western and Eastern Estonia: Association with Villages, Manors and Parish Centres. - Europeans or not? Local level strategies on the Baltic Rim 1100-1400 AD. (CCC Papers, 1.) Oskarshamn, 1999, 215-230.
4. Valk, H., 1999b. Christianization and Changes in Faith in the Burial Traditions of Estonia in the 11th - 17th centuries. - Rom und Byzanz im Norden. Mission und Glaubenswechsel im Ostseeraum während des 8.-14. Jahrhunderts. Band II. (Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. Abhandlungen der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse. Jahrgang 1997, 3, II.) Hrsg. von Michael Müller-Wille, 37-55.

2.1.2. Prehistoric Tartu. Interest in the early history of Tartu has been active for a long time since the year 1632. Tartu is the first place in the Baltic States to be mentioned in written sources, in 1030. Tartu is also the city that has been most excavated by archaeologists in Estonia. The reason to start that research project was the still lacking appropriate comprehensive academic dissertation about prehistoric Tartu.

The study was concentrated on the prehistoric hill-fort of Tartu and the settlement site on the foot of it, from the foundation of the hill-fort in the first millennium AD up to the year 1224. The distribution of the prehistoric cultural layer of Tartu and the finds gathered from it were thoroughly treated in the study. The contents of the archaeological inventory of Tartu were compared with the inventory of other hill-forts and settlement sites of Southern Estonia. The results gained from the archaeological source material were tested by the information from the written sources.

The results of this work allowed a more precise reconstruction of the settlement history of Tartu prehistoric hill-fort and settlement. Some earlier viewpoints of the same question have been impugned.

As a result of the project, the grant holder completed his PhD dissertation in 2001 and defended it successfully the same year.

Monograph:
1. Tvauri, A. Muinas-Tartu. Uurimus Tartu muinaslinnuse ja asula asustusloost. (Muinasaja teadus, 10.) Tartu; Tallinn, 2001.

Peer-reviewed papers:
2. Tvauri, A. Pihkva pottsepad Viljandis ja Tartus 13. sajandil. - Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri, 4, 1. Tallinn, 21-30.
3. Tvauri, A. Loode-Vene päritolu slaavi keraamika Eestis 11.-16. sajandil. - Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri, 4, 2. Tallinn, 91-119.

Other research papers:

1. Haak, A. 2002. Archaeological excavations in the Cathedral Ruins of Tartu. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Work in Estonia 2001. Tallinn, 110-120.

2.1.3. Beginning with 1989 the archaeological kabinet has actively investigated prehistoric and medieval Viljandi. The finds gathered from Viljandi are dealt with by the MA student Arvi Haak in his thesis. The results show that the settlement of Viljandi was started on the site of the medieval town at the beginning or in the middle of the 13th c., at any rate after the conquest. The excavations yielded information about the town wall, moat, streets network as well as a potter's kiln of the 13th c. An earlier centre of settlement which was established no later than at the Viking Age and was located to the south of the Castle Hills, ceased to exist at the beginning of the 13th c. and was replaced by a medieval town. Unique finds include besieging constructions from 1223 and remnants of an Estonian nobleman's household on the neighbouring hillock of the hill-fort, destroyed in battles the same year. The ruins of the Viljandi Castle of Order present a separate excavation object continually investigated since 1998.

Publications:
Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Valk, H. The Genesis of Viljandi (Fellin): archaeological data. - Materials of the conference "Riga und der Ostseeraum in der Geschichte: Regionale Verbindungen und Multikulturalität". Riga, 11-16 September, 2001. (in print)
2. Tvauri, A. Pihkva pottsepad Viljandis ja Tartus 13. sajandil. - Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri, 4: 1. Tallinn, 2000, 21-30.

Other research papers:
3. Valk H. 2000. Archaeological Investigations in Late Prehistoric - Early Medieval Viljandi and in Pilistvere Churchyard. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis 1999 / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1999, 39-53.
4. Valk H. 2000. Muinas-Viljandi Lossimägede taga. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 1999. Viljandi, 56-78.
5. Valk, H. 2001. Viljandi linnuse 1223. a piiramisrajatised. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 2000. Viljandi, 2001, 73-91.
6. Valk, H, 2001. Besieging constructions from 1223 in Viljandi. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2001, 65-79.
7. Vaba, A., Valk, H. 2002. Prehistoric settlements in Viljandi. New evidence. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2002, 82-90.
8. Haak, A., Valk, H. 2002. Archaeological investigations of Medieval and Post-Medieval Viljandi. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2002, 91-104.
9. Haak, A., Vaba, A., Valk, H. 2001. a arheoloogilised uuringud Viljandis. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 2001. Viljandi, 2002, 29-51.
10. Saks, P., Valk, H. 2002. Loomaluude leiud Viljandi Pähklimäelt. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 2001. Viljandi, 2002, 52-58.
11. Haak, A. Society and change: the case of Northern Viljandimaa (South Estonia) during Europeanisation. - OFFA 58/59. Kiel (in print).
12. Haak, A. Archaeological investigations of the Castle Ruins and at Pikk Street in Viljandi. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn, 2001, 108-116.
13. Haak, A. Viljandi ordulinnuse kaevamised 2000. aastal. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 2000. Viljandi, 2001, 111-126.
14. Tvauri, A. Archaeological investigations in the old part of Viljandi. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1997. Tallinn, 1998, 81-86.
15. Tvauri, A. Keskiaikainen saviastioiden polttouuni Viljandista. - Tekniikan Waiheita. Teknologian historian aikakauslehti, 1999: 1, 45-49.
16. Tvauri, A. The medieval potter´s kiln from the Old Town of Viljandi. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1998. Tallinn, 1999, 89-95.
17. Tvauri, A. Arheoloogilised uuringud Viljandi linnuses 1998. aastal. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 1998. Viljandi, 1999, 20-27.
18. Tvauri, A. Keskaegne pottsepaahi Viljandi vanalinnast. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 1998. Viljandi, 1999, 28-39.
19. Tvauri, A. Arheoloogilised kaevamised Viljandi linnuses 1939. aastal. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 1999, Viljandi, 2000, 79-94.
20. Tvauri, A. The archaeological investigations in Viljandi, Tartu and Kärkna. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1999. Tallinn, 2000, 54-62.
21. Tvauri, A. Viljandi linnamüüri arheoloogilised uuringud aastatel 1997-1999. - Viljandi Muuseumi Aastaraamat 2000. Viljandi, 2001, 92-110.
22. Tvauri, A. Archaeological investigations in the Old Town of Viljandi, at 4 Pikk Street. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn, 2001, 103-107.

2.1.4. Since 1998 the reflection of antiquities in oral tradition has been investigated. The results will be revealed in the forthcoming book in the spring 2003 "Muistis, koht ja pärimus" /Archaeological Site, place and oral tradition/. Based on the materials from model areas comprising various ethno-cultural areals it is possible to state that the connections between a site and oral tradition are not occasional: definite, although regionally varying regularities appear between different kinds of antiquities and different areas of tradition. The age of various kinds of relics, i.e. leaving them out of active use in comparison with the existing tradition, allows to draw conclusions about the retroaction of folkloristic tradition (here, too, essential variety occurs regionally and between different types of sites). Tradition reflects the meaning of an antiquity in the past, i.e. on modern and medieval cultural landscape, but certain suggestions can also be made about prehistoric times. The coalescence of newer layers of tradition and the change in the meaning of a site as well as the change of sites across times can also be observed. Besides, the tradition along with antiquities reflects, as part of the tradition of a place, peculiarities of regional ethnic culture and mentality.

Publications:
Collections:
1. Remmel, M.-A., Potter, T. & Valk, H. (eds.) 2001. Rõuge kihelkond: paigad ja pärimus. Tartu, 2001.
2. Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10.) Ed. M. Hiiemäe and H. Valk. (in print)

Peer-reviewed papers:
3. Valk, H. 1999. Maastikust, muististest ja mõtteviisist. - Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri, 3: 2. Tallinn, 165-169.
4. Valk, H. 2003. Muistis, koht ja pärimus: sissejuhatus ja probleemiseade. - Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10.) Ed. M. Hiiemäe & H. Valk. (in print)
5. Mandel, M., Valk, H. 2003. Muistised ja muistisepärimus Läänemaal: Hanila, Karuse ja Martna kihelkond. - Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10.) Ed. M. Hiiemäe & H. Valk. (in print)
6. Valk, H. 2003. Muistised ja kohapärimus: seoseid ja kokkupuutepunkte. - Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10.) Ed. M. Hiiemäe & H. Valk. (in print)
7. Remmel, M., Valk, H. 2003. Muistised, pärimuspaigad ja kohapärimus: piirkondlikud ja ajalised aspektid. - Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10.) Toim. M. Hiiemäe & H. Valk. (in print)
8. Valk, H. Muistised ja kohapärimus Kagu-Eestis. - Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10.) Toim. M. Hiiemäe & H. Valk. (in print)

2.1.5. Since 2001 the reflection of the problems of Christianisation and syncretism in archaeological matter have been under observation. The cemeteries of the whole Estonia offer a source material, the location relations and reflections of faiths in the finds for the investigation.
Publications: see 3.5.

2.1.6. Ethno-cultural processes in Estonia and neighbouring countries in the early Iron Age and medieval times. The Late Iron Age and medieval archaeological material makes it possible to observe the distribution of the country into two larger areas: 1) sea-oriented Northern and Western Estonia and 2) inland-oriented Southern Estonia. An extensive migration of the eastward Finnic population from the area of Novgorod to Tartumaa at the end of the 13th c. can be asserted; onetime direct contacts between the Votians and the Daugava Livonians can be supposed at the time when the communication took place not via Estonia but through the areas to the east of Lake Peipus, namely Setomaa and Northern Latvia.

Publications:
Monographs:
1. Valk, H. 1999. Rural Cemeteries of Southern Estonia 1225-1800 AD. (CCC Papers 3.) Visby; Tartu 1999; 2nd edition 2001.

Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Valk, H. 2001. About the Early Medieval and Prehistoric Contacts of the Votians and the Daugava Livonians. - Congressus Nonus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum. 7.-13.8. 2000 Tartu. Pars VIII. Dissertationes sectionum: Litteratura, Archaeologia & Anthropologia & Genetica & Acta Congressus. Redigit: Tõnu Seilenthal; curaverunt: Anu Nurk, Triinu Palo, 365-374.
2. Valk, H. 1999. A subgroup of the "Hanseatic brooches" in Estonia. - The Medieval Town in the Baltic: Hanseatic History and Archaeology. Proceedings of the first & second seminar, Tartu, Estonia, 6th - 7th June 1997 and 26th - 27th June 1998. Tartu, 1999, 85-100.

Other research papers:
3. Valk, H. 2001. Livonia and North-Western Russia: Reflections on Communication and Contacts in the Archaeological Material of Rural Sites (Staroladozhskij Sbornik. Vyp. 4. SPB.) Staraja Ladoga, 21-32.

2.1.7. Research on Southern-Estonian settlement history and archaeological monuments is being carried out, based both on archival data and field inventories. The results of the work are revealed in the joint database of Estonian antiquities and archaeological sites (see development strategies, item 5), as well as the maps of distribution of the book "Eesti muinasaeg" /Prehistoric Estonia/.

Publications:

Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Kihno. K., Valk, H. 1999. Archaeological and palynological investigations at Ala-Pika, South-East Estonia. - Environmental and Cultural History of the Eastern Baltic Region. Eds. U. Miller, T. Hackens (†), V. Lang, A. Raukas and S. Hicks. (PACT 57.) Rixensart, 1999, 221-237.
2. Karukäpp, R., Valk, H. 1999. Settlement History and its Connections with the Geomorphological Preconditions on the Otepää Heights, Southeastern Estonia. - Environmental and Cultural History of the Eastern Baltic Region. Eds. U. Miller, T. Hackens (†), V. Lang, A. Raukas and S. Hicks. (PACT 57.) Rixensart, 1999, 207-219.

Other research papers:
3. Valk, H., Konsa, M. Vindi, A., Mandel, M., Tamla, Ü. 1999. a avastatud muistised. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1999. Tallinn, 2000, 121-128.
4. Valk, H. 2001. Rõuge kihelkond: kaugem ajalugu ja muistised. - Rõuge kihelkond: paigad ja pärimus. Tartu, 2001, 11-41.
5. Tvauri, A. Archaeological excavations in the gate building of Põltsamaa castle. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1998. Tallinn, 1999, 127-131.
6. Tvauri, A. Rescue excavations on Kaubi village cemetery and supervision in the churchyards of Kambja and Nõo. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1998. Tallinn, 1999, 133-140.
7. Tvauri, A. Archaeological investigations at the Bishops´s Castle of Varbek (Kastre). - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001. Tallinn, 2002, 152-159.
8. Valk, H., Konsa, M., Vindi, A., Mandel, M. & Tamla, Ü. 1999. aastal avastatud muistised. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1999. Tallinn 2000, 121-127.
9. Konsa, M. & Ots, M. 2000. aastal avastatud muistised. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2001, 122-133.
10. Konsa, M. Archaeological investigations in the churchyard of Paistu. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001. Tallinn 2002, 160-164.
11. Konsa, M. & Ots, M. 2001. aastal avastatud muistised. Archaeological monuments discovered in 2001.- Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001. Tallinn 2002, 192-199.

2.2. "Social, economic and cultural processes in prehistoric and medieval Estonia" (TFLAJ 2557)

This is a new five-year target-financed theme, launched in January 2003. The project leader is Prof. V. Lang, principal investigators - all our teaching staff and researchers, in the capacity of ancillary personnel the technical employees of the AK; consequently, it is a joint research project of the Chair and the Kabinet.

This theme partly continues the former TU target-financed theme ("Processes of Popular Culture in Estonia") and partly the theme dealt with at the Institute of History ("Centre and Periphery: Fort Town, Land and Power in Estonia from Prehistory to Medieval Times") and comprises all archaeological research in Tartu University. In its frames social, economic, settlement-historical, cultural, ideological, religious etc. aspects are being analysed on a novel contemporary international level on the basis of the archaeological material of prehistoric and medieval Estonia. As to the theoretical and methodological aspects of the theme, we proceed from the programme of interpretative archaeologies, a more and more widely accepted programme in the Western archaeology in recent years. The main aim is to begin, in the frames of this programme, to elaborate Estonian prehistoric and medieval times on a new level and publish monographs on different periods. We plan to compose a series of five monographs, titled "Eesti arheoloogia" /Estonian archaeology/, of which within the coming five years we publish at least two; the making of the others is realistic during the subsequent period. The necessity of the theme emerges from the fact that the previous comprehensive treatment of archaeology was written 30 years ago (without an overview of the medieval period) and is outdated both by its methodology and the contents of archaeological material. The investigation of the current theme by generalising and interpreting our archaeological material lifts it to a qualitatively new level, proceeding from which it is possible to continue thorough investigations of new problems.

3. Data about allocated research grants

During the period under observation all in all 12 research grants have either been completed or set to work, the ESF financed 11 of the grants. Admitting that in applying for grants and executing them our researchers have been active and successful, it has brought in considerable additional resources for archaeology in Tartu University. Mostly, the themes of grants are directly connected with one or another sub-project of the target-financed theme, thus adding to existing scanty resources for substantial research into the theme.

3.1. ESF grant No. 4563: "Keava - "The Hand of the Sun" (2001-2004); grant holder Valter Lang. Budget: 2001 - 87,000; 2002 - 90,000 EEK.

The aim of the project is to more closely investigate one of the major centres of the Viking Age in Estonia - the Keava complex (to the south of prehistoric Harjumaa) - consisting of two hill-forts and three settlement sites. Keava was mentioned in old Russian chronicles in 1054 when Prince Izjaslav conquered it. The chronicler translated the name Keava into Russian - "solntsa ruka" ("The Hand of the Sun"). In addition to the concrete complex it is planned to find out about the whole settlement scene of the southward Harjumaa during the prehistoric times to cast light on the then network of hill-forts as well as administrative-political distribution. The hypothesis claims that the administrative-political distribution of the late Iron Age was based on the districts of hill-forts, which in turn were formed on the grounds of taxable regions - prehistoric socages - (up to now socages were known only from medieval written records). In the course of the project archaeological excavations will be carried out on hill-forts and settlement sites of Keava and landscape inspections made in the broader environment. Students of archaeology who participate in the Keava expedition can have their field practice there. The work will be coordinated with Turku University in Finland and the University of Latvia in Riga. The current results of the project will be made available on the Internet homepage of Keava.

The present results have been published as follows:
Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Lang, V. 2002b. Vakus ja linnusepiirkond Eestis. Lisandeid muistse haldusstruktuuri uurimisele peamiselt Harjumaa näitel. - Keskus - tagamaa - ääreala. Uurimusi asustushierarhia ja võimukeskuste kujunemisest Eestis. (Muinasaja teadus, 11.) Tallinn; Tartu, 125-168.
2. Lang, V. 2002a. Võimukeskuste kujunemine Eestis. Sissejuhatus. - Keskus - tagamaa - ääreala. Uurimusi asustushierarhia ja võimukeskuste kujunemisest Eestis. (Muinasaja teadus, 11.) Tallinn; Tartu, 7-16.
3. The same in English: Lang, V. On the formation of power centres in Estonia. An introduction. - Keskus - tagamaa - ääreala. Uurimusi asustushierarhia ja võimukeskuste kujunemisest Eestis. (Muinasaja teadus, 11.) Tallinn; Tartu, 17-28.

Other research papers:
4. Lang, V., Tvauri, A. & Rohtla, M.-L. 2002. The hill-fort of Keava. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001, 65-73.
5. Konsa, M., Lang, V., Lainemurd, I. & Vaab, H. 2002. Archaeological excavations at settlement site I of Linnaaluste. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001, 74-81.

3.2. ESF grant No. 3290: "The 9th-16th cc. shooting arms in Estonia" (1998), grant holder Ain Mäesalu. Total expenses: 73,800 EEK.

Various medieval shooting arms, found in Estonia, were analysed in detail, comparing them with similar finds of the neighbouring areas. The materials of written records on shooting arms were elaborated. The general development typology of several shooting arms (earlier shotguns, hook-shaped guns, breech-loaders) was successfully specified. It also turned out that in the medieval times Estonia had a considerable position in using shooting arms, manufacturing them on the spot and exporting them over the whole Northern Europe.

The results of the investigations were published in papers in peer-reviewed journals:
1. Mäesalu, A. Die ältesten Feuerwaffen Estlands. - Steinbrücke 1998. Estnische historische Zeitschrift. Tartu, 1998, 19-29.
2. Mäesalu, A. Esimesed tagantlaetavad tulirelvad. - Ajalooline Ajakiri. 1998: 2, 9-18.
3. Mäesalu, A. Haruldane haakpüss Tartust. Täiendusi ühe relvaliigi üldisele arenguloole. - Ajalooline Ajakiri. 1999: 3/4, 5-18.

3.3. ESF grant No. 3818: "Prehistoric and medieval weaponry in Estonia. Typology and technology", (1999-2002), grant holder Jüri Peets (Institut of History), principal investigator Ain Mäesalu.

A. Mäesalu dealt primarily with an analysis of mechanical shooting arms (bows, crossbows, firing and catapulting arms and their ammunition) on the basis of both archaeological finds and written sources in the 9th-16th-cc. Estonia. As a result of using an extensive comparative material from Western, Northern and Eastern Europe, he succeeded in establishing general developmental typologies of arrowheads and crossbow arrowheads along with new and more exact datings. A completely new picture was drawn about various firing and throwing arms used in medieval Estonia.

The research results were published in four papers, three of which appeared in peer-reviewed journals and one elsewhere:

Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Mäesalu, A. Notstal ja springala - mõistatuslikud relvad keskaegses Eestis. - Ajalooline Ajakiri. 2000: 3, 5-24.
2. Mäesalu, A. Weapons in Otepää castle in 1396. - Castella maris Baltici V. Rudkobing, 2001, 91-98.
3. Mäesalu, A. The oldest firearms of the Hanseatic towns of Tallinn and Tartu. - The Medieval Town in the Baltic: Hanseatic history and Archaeology II. Edited by Rünno Vissak, Ain Mäesalu. Tartu, 2002, 109-118.

Other research papers:
1. Mäesalu, A. Heitemasinad muistses vabadusvõitluses. - Muinasaja loojangust omariikluse läveni. Pühendusteos Sulev Vahtre 75. sünnipäevaks. Koostanud Andres Andresen. Tartu, 2001, 69-105.

The manuscript of the monograph (c. 220 pp.) is being written: "Mechanical Shooting Arms in Prehistoric and Medieval Estonia (the 9th-16th cc.)", in which bows, crossbows, firing and catapulting arms used in Estonia are investigated on the basis of their ammunition, archaeological finds and written records.

3.4. ESF grant No. 3363: "Computering archaeology in Tartu University" (1998-2000), grant holder H. Valk. Financing in 1998 - 56,000; in 1999 - 89,900 and in 2000 - 92,000 EEK.
The resources were spent on setting up the computer network and procuring hard- and software for the CA and AK of the TU. Substantially, the database of the Estonian antiquities and archaeological sites was created (the elaboration of the conception, creating the database and entering the data).

The results can be used in research work (composing information requests for various projects; creating various thematic distribution maps). The database and maps resting on the former are also used in Estonian archaeology for writing and illustrating a new comprehensive treatment (the new target-financed theme, beginning with the year 2003, see above 2.2).

Publications:
Peer-reviewed papers:
see 2.1.4. entries 1-7.
9. Konsa, M. Arheoloogiline geoinfosüsteem. - Muistis, koht ja pärimus. (Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised, 10) (in print).

Other research papers:
1. Valk, H. 2001. Rõuge kihelkond: kaugem ajalugu ja muistised. - Rõuge kihelkond: paigad ja pärimus. Tartu, 2001, 11-41.

3.5. ESF grant No. 4366: "Reflections of popular religion and Christianisation process in Estonian archaeological material and oral tradition" (2001-2004), grant holder H. Valk.
Financing in 2001 - 68,000; in 2002 - 73,000 EEK.
The main aim of research based on archaeological data as well as written sources and folkloristic and ethnological materials, consists in re-constructing cultural processes, principally the nature of popular religion in Estonia of the 11th -19th cc. The main concept is that babtizing Estonia in the 13th century did not result in actual acceptance of Christianity but in a transition to a syncretistic worldview, in whose frames prehistoric beliefs existed along with Christian ones and those of mixed charater. The research tries to specify the place of Estonia in the medieval and early modern times against the broader international cultural background.

The results can be used in writing a comprehensive treatment of Estonian history and the history of culture.
Publications:
Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Valk H. 1998. Eesti 13.-17. sajandi rahvausundi allikatest, uurimisseisust ja probleemidest. - Estland, Lettland und westliches Christentum. Estnisch-deutsche Beiträge zur baltischen Kirchengeschichte. // Eestimaa, Liivimaa ja Lääne kristlus. Eesti-saksa uurimusi Baltimaade kirikuloost. Hg. S. Rutiku, R. Staats. Kiel. 75-90.
2. Valk H. 1998. About the Religiosity and Mentality of the Estonians in the 13th - 17th Centuries: Sources and Problems. - Estland, Lettland und westliches Christentum. Estnisch-deutsche Beiträge zur baltischen Kirchengeschichte. // Eestimaa, Liivimaa ja Lääne kristlus. Eesti-saksa uurimusi Baltimaade kirikuloost. Hg. S. Rutiku, R. Staats.Kiel. 91-102.
3. Valk, H. 2003. Christianisation in Estonia: a Process of Dual-Faith and Syncretism. - The Cross goes North. Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe, AD 300-1300. Ed. by Martin Carver. York, 571-579.
4. Valk, H. Christian and non-Christian Holy Sites in Medieval Estonia: a Reflection of Ecclesiastical Attitudes Towards Popular Religion. (CCC Papers, 9 (?)). Ed. Dr J. Staecker. Lund. (in print)
5. Valk, H. 2003. From the Iron Age to the Middle Ages: Local Nobility and Cultural Changes in Estonia in the 13th Century. - Acta Visbyensia, XIII. Visby. (in print)
6. Valk, H. The Christianisation of Estonia and Changes in Burial Customs. - Offa, 58. (In print)

Other research papers:

7. Valk, H. 2002. Vasalles or seniores? The old nobility and new power structures in post-conquest Estonia. - Viking Heritage Magazine, 2002:1, 22-24.


3.6. G. Soros' Research Support Scheme grant No. 827/1998 "Archaeological Sites and Oral Tradition in Estonia and in Finland" (1998-2000). Received 12,000 USD. The project leader and centre was the TU Archaeological Kabinet; the participants - the Estonian Literary Museum and the University of Helsinki. The interdisciplinary project (archaeology and folkloristics) observed the connections between antiquities and tradition as well as place-related tradition in Estonian and Finnish selected areas. An emphasis was placed on comparative analysis of data from selected areas with different ethno-cultural and confessional background (Lutheran coastal area, Lutheran inland, Orthodox inland both in Estonia and Finland). The relations between tradition and sites allow bringing out clear ethno-cultural and mentality distinctions between coastal and inland areas, on the one hand, and between Lutheran and Orthodox areas, on the other. The peculiarities of the connection mentioned mainly appear analogously both in Estonia and Finland. The specific features of Estonia and Finland are also under observation. The results will be published in the spring of 2003 as a collection of papers "Muistis, koht ja pärimus"/Archaeological site, place and oral tradition/.

Publications: see 3.4.

3.7. ESF grant No. 3327: "Prehistoric Tartu. A study of the settlement history of the hill-fort and settlement site of Tartu" (1998-2000); grant holder Andres Tvauri. Budget: in 1998 - 20,600; in 1999 - 52,000; in 2000 - 70,000 EEK.

This grant was used for covering expences of A. Tvauri's research in the frames of the target-financed theme "Processes of Popular Culture…". More closely see above, 2.1.2.

In the frames of the project the grant holder wrote his PhD dissertation in 2001 and defended it successfully the same year, besides there were other papers:

Monograph:
Tvauri, A. Muinas-Tartu. Uurimus Tartu muinaslinnuse ja asula asustusloost. (Muinasaja teadus, 10.) Tartu; Tallinn, 2001.

Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Tvauri, A. Loode-Vene päritolu slaavi keraamika Eestis 11.-16. sajandil. - Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri, 4: 2. Tallinn, 2000, 91-119.
2. Tvauri, A. Lõuna-Eesti noorema rauaaja linnuste ja külade arheoloogilise leiumaterjali erinevused. - Keskus - tagamaa - ääreala. Uurimusi asustushierarhia ja võimukeskuste kujunemisest Eestis. (Muinasaja teadus, 11.) Talliinn, 2002, 275-300.

3.8. ESF grant No. 5314: "Late Iron Age pottery in Estonia" (2002-2004); grant holder Andres Tvauri. The budget for 2002 was 81 000 EEK.

In Estonia, pottery of the Iron Age has not sufficiently been studied, considering its importance to the archaeological research. Mostly, the previous studies have taken place as by-products of other fields of study; they are based on single sites or regions. Only a few papers deal with Late Iron Age pottery of even a smaller region more thoroughly. A thorough study of pottery of any period of Estonian prehistory has not been compiled yet.

The main objective of the study is the formation of the typology and chronology of Estonian Late Iron Age (from AD 1050 to the beginning of the 13th century) pottery. In order to achieve this, all the pottery finds from the Estonian Late Iron Age and 13th century antiquities will be studied and compared with similar finds from neighbouring countries. In addition to that, the project will try to answer at least the following questions:
1. How and when did the transition from the use of hand-made pottery to that of wheel-thrown pottery take place?
2. In which context was pottery used in Estonia during the Late Iron Age?
3. Where and by whom were the vessels made; how and across which routes did trading with pottery take place?
4. Which impact did the transition from Late Iron Age to the Medieval period in the 13th century have on the use of pottery in Estonia?
In the course of the study, the following hypotheses will be tested:
1. The spread of wheel-thrown pottery to the territory of Estonia began from Southwest Estonia, influenced by the pottery tradition of Northwest Russia.
2. Northwestern and Western Estonia, and the islands, belong to a pottery tradition different from Southeastern Estonia; the strongest influences for this region might originate from the territories on the western and southern coasts of the Baltic Sea.
3. The transition from hand-made pottery to wheel-thrown pottery brought along the concentration of pottery-making into a few centres.
4. The arrival of wheel-thrown pottery made pottery an element of trade across long distances.
Publishing and use of the results of the project
Articles based on single questions, connected with the current study, have been designed to be written and published. The results of the project will be compiled into a monograph, which will be published at the final stage of the project. That would be the first monograph, dealing with pottery of one prehistoric period as a whole, and very intensive use of the results can be foreseen in the future studies dealing with the period under consideration.

Up to now, the author has not published articles in the frames of this grant.

3.9. ESF grant No. 3332: "The Stone Age settlement in coastal Estonia" (1998-2000), grant holder Aivar Kriiska. Budget: in 1998 - 69,750; in 1999 - 70,000; in 2000 - 85,000 EEK.

The aim of the project was to cast light on the time and course of settlement formation in the coastal area of Estonian mainland and West-Estonian islands. During the fieldwork in the frames of the grant 20 new fixed sites (including 10 settlement sites of Iron Age) were discovered, four sites were archaeologically excavated and comparative data were gathered from scientific institutions and museums of Estonia and neighbouring countries.

The results gained indicate that the coastal settlement with a maritime economy in Estonian mainland was formed in the Late Mesolithic and soon the inhabitants moved on to the islands (the oldest human settlement in Saaremaa, based on radiocarbon dating, originates from the year 5800 BC, the Hiiumaa settlement - 5700 BC and the Ruhnu settlement - 5300 BC). Obviously the transition took place to a more sessile way of life and the institution of an all-year-round village began to take shape.

Mainly based on research papers published in the frames of this grant (by the beginning of 2001 more than 10 papers were published) PhD degree was defended in the University of Helsinki.


Monographs:
1. Kriiska, A. Stone Age Settlement and Economic Processes in the Estonian Coastal Area and Islands. Academic Dissertation. Helsinki 2001. (ISBN 951-45-9858-X).
2. Kivimäe, J., Kriiska, A. Põltsam, I., Vunk, A. Merelinn Pärnu. Pärnu Linnavalitsus 1998.

Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Kriiska, A. Corded Ware Culture Sites in Northeastern Estonia. - De temporibus antiquissimis ad honorem Lembit Jaanits. (Muinasaja teadus, 8.) Tallinn 2000, 59-79.
2. Kriiska, A. Formation and Development of the Stone Age Settlement at Riigiküla, Northeastern Estonia. - Environmental and Cultural Hiatory of the Eastern Baltic Region. (PACT, 57.) Rixensart, 1999, 173-183.
3. Kriiska, A. Mesoliitilised asustusjäljed Loode-Saaremaal. - Ajalooline Ajakiri, 1 (100), 1998, 13-22.
4. Kriiska, A. Settlements of coastal Estonia and maritime hunter-gatherer economy. - Lietuvos archeologija 19, 2000, 153-166.
5. Kriiska, A., Lõugas, L. Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Seasonal Settlement at Kõpu, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. - Environmental and Cultural History of the Eastern Baltic Region. (PACT 57.) Rixensart, 1999, 157-172.

Other research papers:

1. Kriiska, A. Lääne-Eesti mandriosa kiviaja äärejooni. - Läänemaa Muuseumi Toimetised, V. Haapsalu 2001, 7-40.
2. Kriiska, A, Lõugas, L., Saluäär, U. Archaeological excavations of the Stone Age settlement site and ruin of the stone cist grave of the Early Metal Age in Kaseküla. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1997. Tallinn 1998, 30-43.
3. Kriiska, A., Saluäär, U. Archaeological fieldwork on the island Ruhnu. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1999. Tallinn 2000, 18-28.
4. Kriiska, A., Saluäär, U. Lemmetsa ja Malda neoliitilised asulakohad Audru jõe alamjooksul. - Artiklite kogumik, 2. Pärnumaa ajalugu. Vihik 3. Pärnu 2000, 8-38.
5. Kriiska, A., Saluäär, U., Lõugas. L. Ruhnu saare varaasustus. 1999. aasta arheoloogilise ekspeditsiooni tulemusi. - Saaremaa Muuseum. Kaheaastaraamat 1999-2000. Kuressaare 2001, 3-18.
6. Kriiska, A., Tamla, Ü. Archeological inventories on the islands in the Livonian Bay. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 1997. Tallinn 1998, 193-202.

Abstracts of presentations:
1. The chronology of Estonian Stone Age. - Hronologia neolita Vostochnoi Evropõ. Tezisõ dokladov mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii, posvjashchennoi pamjati d.i.n. N.N.Gurinoi. Sankt-Peterburg 27 nojabrja - 2 dekabrja 2000 g. Sankt-Peterburg, 34-36.

2. Kriiska, A. The colonisation of the West-Estonian archipelago. - Program & Abstracts. 6th International Conference on The Mesolithic in Europe "Meso 2000". Stockholm, Sweden, September 4-8, 2000. Stockholm 2000, 69.

3.10. ESF grant No. 4558: "A Late Neolithic breakthrough - the phenomenon of Corded Ware Culture" (2001-2004), grant holder A. Kriiska. Financing: in 2001 - 72,000; in 2002 - 90,000 EEK.

The aim of the project is to find out - on the basis of the existing data, new systematic field work and comparisons with Eastern, Central and Northern Europe - the emergence, background and general tendencies of development of the cultures of corded ware/battle axes in Estonia. The main questions are: 1) When did the Corded Ware Culture emerge? 2) What were the reasons and background of the emergence of the phenomenon?; 3) To what extent does it differ from or is it similar, in its main features, to the cultures of Combed Ware?; 4) What was the settlement of the carriers of corded ware culture like and are there any regional specific features?; 5) Was a village or farmstead the main settlement unit?; 6) What was the relationship between the agricultural and fishing economies like?; 7) Did the society of Corded Ware Culture differ from that of Combed Ware Culture and to what extent? As a result of the research there are a number of smaller specified investigations planned as well as a monographic summary of Corded Ware Culture in Estonia.

Publications
Peer-reviewed papers:
1. Kriiska, A. Dwelling Remains from Stone Age Occupation Sites in Estonia. - Huts and Houses. Stone Age and Early Metal Age Buildings in Finland. Helsinki 2002, 235-239.
2. Lang, V., Kriiska, A. Eesti esiajaloo periodiseering ja kronoloogia. - Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri, 2001, 5/2, 83-109.
3. Kriiska, A. Aegade alguses - muutumatu ja muutuv kiviaeg. - Ajalooline ajakiri, ½ (112/113), 2001, 5-14.

3.11. ESF grant No. 5328: "Central- and Southwestern-Estonian Mesolithic" (2002-2005), grant holder A. Kriiska. Financing: in 2002 - 120,000 EEK.

The aim of the project is to specify, by means of investigating the existing data and the data that were gained during new field works (material of finds, exact information about fixed antiquities, various natural-scientific analyses, radiocarbon datings etc.), the formation, main trends of development and mutual relationships of the Mesolithic settlement in the basin of the Pärnu River and the basin of Lake Võrtsjärv.
The principal questions include: 1) Is the Mesolithic material in the basin of Lake Võrtsjärv and that of the Pärnu River similar or are there any peculiar features in it (rock use, the frequency of occurrence of main types of objects etc.)?; 2) What was the relationship between the coastal and inland settlements like (possible size of hunting areas, season-dependent or sessile communities)?; 3) What does the Mesolithic period of the investigation area look like, placed into a broader Estonian as well as Eastern- and Northern-European context? The output of the research contains a number of specialised investigations.

Publications
Other research papers:
1. Kriiska, A. Noppeid Eesti väikesaarte esi- ja varaajaloost. - Artiklite kogumik, 3. Pärnumaa ajalugu. Vihik 5. Pärnu 2002, 8-20.
2.Kriiska, A. Rannikolta saaristoon - Viron rannikon kivikautisen asutuksen synty ja kehityksen yleispiirteitä. - Muinaistutkija, 2, 2002, 2-10.
3.Kriiska, A., Saluäär, U., Lõugas, L., Johanson, K., Hanni, H. Archaeological excavations in Sindi-Lodja. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001. Tallinn 2002, 27-40.
Abstracts of presentations:
1. Veski, S., Heinsalu, A., Klassen, V., Kriiska, A., Lõugas, L., Saluäär, U. Early Holocene coastal paleoenvironment and ancient man on the shore of the Baltic Sea at Pärnu, southwestern Estonia. - NorFa seminar Environment and settling along the Baltic Sea coasts through time, Pärnu, Estonia, October 3.-6, 2002, 86-87.
2. Veski, S., Heinsalu, A., Klassen, V., Kriiska, A., Lõugas, L., Saluäär, U. Prehistoric man and the Baltic Sea at Pärnu, Southwestern Estonia. Shifting coasts and possible tsunami in the Baltic Sea 8400-8200 years BP. - Environmental Catastrophes and Recoveries in the Holocene. Abstracts Volume. Brunel University, West London (UK), 28 August - 2 September, 2002, 61.

3.12. ESF grant No. 4589: "The historical heritage of Estonian cultural landscapes" (2001-2003), grant holder Hannes Palang, the TU Faculty of Biology-Geography, part of principal investigators - Valter Lang and Marge Konsa from the TU Chair of Archaeology).
The aim of the interdisciplinary project is to investigate the changes in Estonian cultural landscapes from the present back to prehistoric times and analyse the regularities as well as regional differences in the formation of cultural landscapes through four periods - i. e. prehistoric, manorial, farmstead and collective-farming landscapes. The application aim of the project is to give a theoretical foundation for organising protection and management of cultural landscapes and their use. In an analysis of prehistoric landscapes, the proportion of natural and social factors in the change of settlement and landscape use is observed across different periods. In the area of testing, namely in the environment of Tõrva, the archaeological sites are mapped and observed in detail across different periods of time. The hypothesis tests the viewpoint: the attitude of man to his surrounding historical landscape is dynamically (not linearly) changing and depends on the nature of his contemporary social ideology. In the course of the project archaeological expeditions have been carried out to the area of investigation, the material related to archaeology has been prepared for a modern digital map of cultural landscapes to be completed by the end of the project.

Publications:
Other research papers:
1. Lang, V. Maastik ja kultuurmaastik arheoloogias. - Maastik: loodus ja kultuur. Maastikukäsitlusi Eestis. Toim. H. Palang, H. Sooväli. Tartu, 2001, 78-83.
2. Konsa, M. & Ots, M. 2000. aastal avastatud muistised. - Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2001, 122-133.
3. Konsa, M. & Ots, M. 2001. aastal avastatud muistised. Archaeological monuments discovered in 2001.- Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Field Works in Estonia 2001. Tallinn 2002, 192-199.